Reformation

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With a touch from the old school...

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Reformation: a rational movement of the 21st century with the aim to reform  outdated doctrines of 'alternative' medicines of the 20th century.

 

Oct. 2009 Posted by the Grand Master

WHY WE STUDY MEDICAL BACTERIOLOGY

One Hundred Years of Dietetics & Colonics

Few Lessons Learned!

Doctor, would you believe?
  • That the most over looked focal infection in the body is intestinal sepsis.
  • That Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements confer only slight aciduric benefit that could just as easily be accomplished with a glass of milk or cup of yogurt.
  • In practically all distinct forms of intestinal toxemia the main location is in the terminal ileum which practically no colonic irrigation by rectum would reach.
  • Practically all intestinal pathogens are facultative and mutable, and no amount of intestinal antiseptics, essential oils, sulfa drugs, herbal concoctions, colloidal silver, iodoform, hydrogen peroxide, and even arsenic can eliminate a well inoculated small bowel and well established intestinal toxemia. All these methods were clinically tried, repeatedly in the early 1900's by many researchers - Bouchard, Kumawaga, Assmann, Klimmer, Strassburg (1), Friedenwald, Leitz, Von Mieczkowski, etc.
  • That any remedial dietary, although temporary, should be based on the patient's gut ecology, whether it is indolic [malodorous-putrefactive] type, or of the saccharobutyric [stench-gas-acid] type. And that by understanding this biology, will explain why some benefit and other's do not, from all the various dietaries as well as dietetic fads, and why all diets ultimately fail to reverse chronic, degenerative disease, especially obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, stroke, and arteriosclerosis.
  • That the textbook fairy tale of digestion in no way portrays the microbial complexity that begins when food enters the small bowel, and that the stomach only has moderate antiseptic properties.
  • That one of the biggest dietary faults is failure to understand the importance of gastric hydrochloric acid as the firewall pathogen barrier and that by today's dietary, it is diluted with failure to cleave protein into protieds, leaving for indolic fermentation, one of the most potent sources of toxins in the body ecology. (see the author's TASTE TEST DIET).
  • That for all our studies and dedication, we have failed to see the BIG PICTURE, the ground work of all our ambulatory, chronic degenerative diseases, in all its complexities - biologically, clinically, and therapeutically. We have been hoodwinked, bamboozled, baffled, befuddled, and certainly frustrated by our clinical failures, because this story, to the author's knowledge, has never been told.

Garnering from the fertile field of obscure medical history, seemingly today little explored nor appreciated, the author has discovered an arcane textbook produced eighty years ago in Great Britain that protrays lucidity of our delimma of correct dietary and exposes one of the principal causes of most chronic disease - intestinal toxemia. Yes we have all heard of this laity parlance before in so many formats, but I guarantee you this article will be well worth a read or two!

We could say it is probably the entire lost art of understanding the basis of natural medicine which should be akin to natural biology.

Hippocrates had no idea.

In the 5th century BC, Hippocrates, our first naturalist, attributed gout to excessive intake of food and wine (4). For treatment, he recommended dietary restriction and reduction of alcoholic beverages, and for acute attacks, the best medicine was large doses of white hellebore — a powerful purgative. The "status" of gout as a disease of the wealthy has survived over the centuries — if not in fact, in myth. Nearly all accounts of gout emphasize the role of overeating and of excessive consumption of alcohol in the causation of the disease; the grog-blossom nose (redness on the nose or face of persons who drink ardent spirits to excess) is sometimes considered a marker of gout. In 1713, John Martin wrote in The Attila of the Gout (3): "as to the first and remote, or procatarctic causes of gout, there has been little wrangling among the physicians. The general opinion is that drunkenness & gluttony are the father & mother of this distemper, and that a moist air, too much sleep, want of exercise and sloth, are necessary causes. Without the microscope, these people had no way of knowing that the actual arthritis of gout is due to the systemic effects of intestinal toxemia. There are several types of biologic errors in the intestines which lead to an increase in uric acid and its reduction by elimination of the irritated kidney."

THE WORKS OF CHRISTIAN HERTER, M.D. (1865 - 1910)

Considered in his day one of the foremost physicians and workers in microbiology and biochemistry, his contributions to the study of the complex and elusive diseases set up by the growth of an abnormal flora in the intestinal tract is nearly without equal (2). His contributions to the study of the growth of an abnormal flora in the intestinal tract started a trail of research, all now but forgotten. He fully demonstrated that certain species of organisms in the intestines produced abnormal chemical products - toxins - which were absorbed, and that these conditions were associated with chronic forms of disease then as today. Nearly all of his conitributions of later years deal with this subject. Methods of separating, identifying and studying the complex fecal flora were empolyed in his researches which were indispensable to the later workers in this subject, like Dr. Bassler as we will examine below.

The effects of the various organisms on the different pathological conditions as well as physiological properties of food stuffs are considered in this article, and particular attention is given to the disruptive products of toxic proteins, or their comibinations, whch appear in the teeth, stool and urine in abnormal conditions, giving us valuable clinical clues to frank intestinal toxemia, much more sensitive than the well-known indican test. The indigenous microbiota of humans plays a variety of roles in the maintenance of health in the host as well as the deterioration of well being. Commensal microbes of the gastrointestinal tract stimulate the immune system, aid mineral and vitamin absorption by the intestine, synthesize nutrients used by the host, and ward off colonization by potentially pathogenic organisms. By analogy, similar functions likely are assumed by the microbiota indigenous to other sites of the human body, such as the skin or genital tract.

When all has been said about apical, tonsillar, sinus, prostate, female pelvic organs [septimetritis] and other commonly recognized focal infections, the intestinal canal outranks them all in importance. This is not recognized because the average medical man knows little about it, and the specialist nothing at all. When about one-third of the bulk and weight of dried feces is solid bacteria which are voided in countless trillions in one day, and when the organisms in many of the infections met with throughout the body are those of intestinal origin, one would think that the intestinal canal should receive more attention than is being paid to it.

Where do the Escherichia coli in a pus kidney come from? Where do the organisms of an infected appendix come from? Where do the organisms of the gall-bladder arise? A pelvic abscess, liver abscess, or an abscess most anywhere in the internal structures, is only rarely caused by infections from the head or chest, and practically always from the intestines. What makes adhesions in the peritoneum, as in endometriosis, and when there are mixed infections anywhere throughout the body from where do these mircoorganisms come from?

There are defensive structures for the disintegrating and lytic processes within the bowel, the mucous membrane of the intestines, the bactericidal powers of the liver, the RES, and the phagocytes. It is estimated that in normal conditions at least one million bacteria escape the intestinal lumen and enter into the portal system every minute. May these not break down and then exit from the bowel, as proven when we can so often culture intestinal organisms from blood in the veins? From where come the organisms in the veins of phlebitis, lymphangitis of the internal structures, and lymphadenitis? The skin enters in some micorbes, the head and throat structures others, but comparing them to the intestinal canal is like comparing a coffee filter to a kidney dialysis unit. Not all tooth infections are due to the Streptococcus viridans and even if they were, this organism is a common denizen of the intestine, culturable from the stool in the same person, and it does not disappear from the bowel when the teeth are removed. May they not go up from below as well as come down from above? Where do they start from to get into the teeth?

In a bacteriological examination of 192 teeth in 74 patients, Streptococcus viridans was not met with more than in 15 per cent. of these infections. The hemolytic, non- hemolytic and the Streptococcus fecalis were found instead and these live in the intestines like, so-called innocent and inoffensive microbes. Yet according to Bassler, any of the strains of streptococci are all inimical in the intestinal canal of man. Sir William Osler, the famous Canadian physician, once said that to understand syphilis is to understand half of medicine. Bassler uses the same simile in terms of strep to chronic disease and premature ageing. When they live on a tooth, in a tonsil, in a gall-bladder or somewhere else, and when locked up in a tight place they become potent pathogens. But they always start from the intestines. They are now a focal infection in a tooth, tonsil, etc., but they were a focal infection in the intestine formerly, and his experience on this point, in more than 30 years and 5,000 cases of bacteriological/clinical studies, were to him so conclusive that debate and question was no longer tenable. [circa 1930]

"Intestinal toxemia is a proten disorder encompassing the greatest of breadths in medicine and operating causatively and therefore therapeutically through the disorders and diseases in all of the departments of medicine." Anthony Bassler, M. D., F.A.C.P. (Autointoxication, Biologically Considered, 1930)

To no one more than A. I. Kendall, the famous researcher that joined Raymond Rife in search of the cancer bacterium, belongs also the credit of having drawn attention to the fact that, as a rule, gut mircoorganisms utilize carbohydrates in preference to proteins. This is important to understand that in cases of bowel toxemia, a pandemic condition then as it is more so today, starches and sugars feed pathogenic gut microorganisms of which nearly all their exotoxins are resorbable in the human gut and there upon wreck their havoc in the human organism.

The real significance of the intestital flora is considered to lie not in any immediate relation to processes of digestion, but in a wholly different direction - the permanent infection of the crypts of the small and large bowel of pathogenic organisms. It is impossible to avoid the entrance of hundreds of species bacteria into the digestive tract. Once a baby switches from mother's milk, to solid food, the entire flora and fauna of the earth's microbes become available. The obligate bacteria (for example, B. lactis fieroyenes, B. coli, B. bifidus) adapt themselves to the secretions of this part of the body, and ordinarily hold their owin against newcomers. By virtue of their adaptation, they are not ordinarily harmful to their host, but, on the contrary, they are under some circumstances, capable of doing good service by giving rise to conditions that discourage growth of many harmful species which man cannot readily exclude from his digestive tract.

The presence in the colon of immense numbers of obligate microorganisms of the E. coli type may be an important defence of the organism in the sense that they hinder the development of putrefactive decomposition which, if prolonged, is most injurious to the organism as a whole. This adaptation is the most rational explanation of the myriads of colon bacilli that inihabit the large intestine. But it is only a small part of the gut ecology. Varient forms of E. coli can not only be toxic, but even lethal.

The bacteria Escherichia coli was named for the Austrian doctor, Theodor von Escherich (1857-1911), who first isolated the genus of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae, tribe Eschericheae. This bacteria is the common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of man and other animals. Because of its difficult name, it is usually referred to as E.coli.
We need this bacteria to breakdown cellulose and it assists in the absorption of vitamin K, the bloodclotting vitamin.

The feces of the nursling child are extremely abundant in a large majority of them are Gram positive organisms. The non-motile form of organisms like B. lactis aerogenes, B. acidophilus, staphylococci, and streptococci, enter the sterile digestive tract of the new-born by the mouth, the members of the colon bacillus group by the mouth or the anus, but the B. bifidus, the chief obligate bacterium of the milk stools of nurslings. Other Gram positive organisms found, though few in number, were B. aerogenes capsulatus, and a diplococcus, which frequently grew in chains. The chief Gram negative bacilli are small cocci, and shorter and longer bacilli which by cultural methods can be shown to haye the biological characters of the B. lactis aerogenes and B. coli cornimunis group.

In bottle-fed children there are some important differences. The place of importance is in their case occupied by organisms of the B. coli type, and the majority of organisms are Gram negative instead of Gram positive, as is the case of normal nurslings. After infancy the more varied diet increases the opportunities for the entering of many kinds of bacteria into the digestive tract, and although individual variations are considerable, Herter describes conditions that are fairly typical for persons in good health and favourable environments.

During childhood and adolescence there is a slow transition from the conditions of infancy to those of adult life; B. bifidus, though present, is much less numerous, and other bacterial types are more numerous. Still the numbers of putrefactive anaerobes are small, and putrefaction processes in the intestine are not active. Toward adult life great differences exist in the dietary and hygienic habits of different persons, and these are in a great degree reflected in the nature of the bacterial processes of the digestive tract. Herter succeeded, by elaborate and painstaking research, in bringing some order into the apparent chaos of these fecal differences. Further, he succeeded in demonstrating the important fact that varying types of flora could be associated with definite manifestations of disease.


A mere summary of his findings can give but little idea of the vast amount of careful laboratory work done to elucidate these difficult and apparently insurmountable laboratory and clinical problems. Various animals were first observed, and in a contribution in collaboration with A. I. Kendall it was shown that the same bacterial changes occur with the same types of diet in different animals, irrespective of any novelty of the food supplied to the animals under observation. There is a definite bacterial antagonism between the flora generated by a protein and/or a carbohydrate (starch) based diet. Changes from one diet to the other are regularly accompanied by a corresponding change in flora, although in case of infection, this is only temporoary. These changes are accompanied by alterations of the cleavage products in the intestine, the toxins, which are absorbed, do their damage, and then excreted by the urine. Associated with these is a definite change in the clinical conditions of the animal. With the advance of age, the condition of well-being is closely related to the absence of putrefactive anaerobes from the intestinal tract. The onset of senility may be distinctly accelerated through the development of intestinal toxins.

The Types of Intestinal Toxemias

The considerable variations in clinical manifestations and pathological accompaniments of chronic intestinal putrefaction showed that the aetiological conditions of a wide variety of well-known disorders vary considerably in different cases. The toxins generated in the gut go to attack the weak links in the organism and therefore display a wide range of pathologies, yet all coming from a single, potent source - the gut ecology. Herter endeavoured to show that there are grounds for the separation of different types of intestinal putrefaction processes, and that these grounds are based on differences in the character of the putrefaction processes of the bacteria concerned and the diet which feeds them. The discovered classification recoginises three types of putrefaction processes which are common. These types of intestinal disorders are:

1) The INDOLIC, which is characterised by indol before indicanuria, dependent chiefly upon excessive meat decomposition inducted through the cooperation of members of the B. coli group and Clostridium putrificus, commonly found on fruits! Basically, putridity in the colon with the occurrence of the glucoside indican, the diamines putrescin, cadaverin and other biogenous amines as well as other protein degradation products of a toxic nature. Also applies to the general term - ptomaine - [Greek ptoma, corpse] an indefinite term applied to toxic amines formed in the decomposition of protein by the decarboxylation of amino acids by bacterial action. Among the cleavage products produced are ammonia, neurin, putrecin, cadaverin, mercaptan, and hydrogen sulfide.

2) The SACCHARO-BUTYRIC, which is initiated especially by the anaerobic organisms in the digestive tract, fermentation in the small intestine, where particularly poisonous acids and peptides arise. In its simplest form it is associated with little production of indol in the intestinal tract, and hence with slight inidicanuria, or even an entire absence of indican from the urine, but produces acids such as acetic and oxalic (progenitor of kidney stones).

3) The comnbined type of indolic and saccharo-butyric types of decomposition. The innumerable products produced by these fermentations and putrefactions were investigated in detail, the basic substances, sulphur compounds, and aromatic products of the first type (ethereal sulfur), and the gas and fatty acids of the saccharo-butyric type.

The Diagnosis of Intestinal Toxemia

The intestine as a source of focal infection is not a theory, not an hypothesis, nor is it just a dietetic or elimination matter, it is not a rest, medicament or a colonic irrigation affair, and it goes beyond things done at foreign spas, or the taking of B. bulgaricus or B. acidophilus by mouth. Instead of these makeshift methods of treatment, it is a deep biological problem, inconclusive in places, indefinite in parts, difficult to describe and ever shifting and variable, and in it are the greatest lengths of time and extents of experience and of laboratory procedures for understanding diagnoses and treatment required.

It must be stated definitely that there are no classic, individualistic or pathognomonic symptoms of intestinal toxemia. Diagnoses are made by suspecting its presence, and then utilizing the laboratory and engaging in study to prove or disprove its presence is the only way possible.

Throughout a mass of writings on digestive states, hardly a word appears on toxic intestinal states, and if so it is most cursory. Yet the fact remains that these intestinal states are a far more worthy, practical and accurate explanation of many of the conditions described. The subject of chronic intestinal toxemia is bound up in so many vague clinical conditions that to describe the history of these cases in definite ways is impossible. However there are certain signs, symptoms and syndromes that definitely point to a toxic bowel and the fermentative/putrefactive havoc that it can deliver upon the corpus:

Fatigue. It is a prominent one in intestinal toxemias, but that which is so prominently mentioned among endocrinologists in connection with gland deficiencies, e.g. hypothyroidism and exhausted adrenals, is more often due to intestinal toxemia than hypofunction of the internal secretion glands. Definite symptoms of fatigue are conspicuous in intestinal toxemia, and many of these individuals engaging in moderate amounts of work and mental effort become quite exhausted and must rest awhile before they can recover their sense of well being, which is easily exhausted again. With this may be more or less pain in the occipital region, in the back and in the legs, with perhaps vasomotor disturbances at times. As a class, such persons not only seem fatigued on exertion but have a constant-running fatigue which when prominent makes them irritable, cross, and affects them more or less mentally through loss of mental control and even disposition. They may look well and yet can stand but little.

Where is the logic of feeding glandular substances for deficiency when the defidiency is due to depressing toxic effects on the glands coming constantly from the bowel? This is the reason of failure that one so often meets with in glandular therapy, either because the glands are really not deficient and the symptoms are due to the toxemia itself, or if deficient, glandular feedings will not fill the gap, the toxemia still continuously operating on the gland by depressing its functions and secretions.

Insomnia. -Insomnia is a common symptom of intestinal toxemia, but it must be remembered that it is not a characteristic symptom of any one disease or condition, but is common to many. Generally these individuals, who have eaten three meals in the day, are considerably more toxic at the end of the day than in the morning, and it is not uncommon for them to be awake in the early part of the night, getting asleep when quite exhausted along toward the small hours of the morning, while in the morning they are quite sleepy and it is difficult for them to arise. The urine at the time of the insomnia is often high in preformed sulphate bodies and other toxic substances absorbed from the intestinal canal, whereas the urine formed during the day is relatively more normal. It is suggested that these toxic substances stimulate the central nervous system, making sleep difficult.

Anemia. -Not uncommonly a moderate degree of chronic anemia is present. Usually this is of the simple type, but at times, especially in Clostridium putrificus infections, it is of the pernicious form. This anemia is due to resorption of sulphur products, mostly sulphurated hydrogen from the bowel, these substances hemolyzing the erythrocytes.

Tendency to Take Colds. -With those of sedentary lives and types, especially when housed up during cold weather in poorly ventilated rooms, having insufficient exercise and fresh air, they be more liable to colds and respiratory infections. Of course the spread of viruses in the work place do not help, but the toxins are more concentrated during winter due to lack of sweating. There is little doubt about this because one sees more effects from intestinal toxemia as the winter progresses. Most colds are due to the accumulation of catarrh in the bowels, autointoxication from putrefaction/fermentation, and its weakening of the immune system.

Heartburn. - A most common symptom in the gastric type of case is pyrosis. Distinct symptoms of hyperacidity may be present, yet many times the test meals do not prove this existent and still the patient complains of "burning in the stomach" after taking foods. There may be distress on taking food due to an increased sensitiveness in the stomach, a hyperesthesia gastrica. This is due to irritation of sensory nerves from toxic products.

Gas in the Bowels. - It should be noted that as one gets older one has more gas in the bowels, and intestinal toxemia becomes more prominent. You will never see a person over eighty years of age who does not have a non toxic bowel, and we thank the researcher Metchnikoff, the Russian biologist, for showing us that long life is dependent more upon a normal biology of the intestinal canal than any other one factor. [It was Metchnikoff who single-handedly developed the concept of the cellular arm of the immune system, became intensely interested in the aging process in his later years when he moved to Paris, where he served as the head of the Pasteur Institute. He studied the longevity of Bulgarians and provided strong evidence that certain bowel microbes played important roles in preserving health and promoting longevity among them. He named the microbe he thought was most prominent in this field as Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Metchnikoff's work opened the floodgates of basic research on the bowel flora.10]

Constipation.- There are many reasons for habitual constipation. Most of the causes are found in faulty diets and sedentary habits, and carelessness, ignorance and false modesty are causes in not a few. There has been much debate on constipation carried on since Egyptian days of medicine, and it still continues. There seems to be no uniformity of opinion in medicine of what constipation really is- when a person is constipated and when not so. We have the Alverez idea on the one hand, that constipation is of little significance in medicine; and Kellogg's, of three stools a day, on the other. There is no doubt that almost all the instances of colonic stasis and spastic constipation are cases of intestinal toxemia in which more or less pathological microbiology is present, and it is an indictment of the medical profession if allowed to continue through unintelligent methods of ignoring the dietary and history of the stool, while favoring drugs as medicines and surgical treatments.

Gall-bladder Conditions.- Chronic cholecystitis, with or without stones, is due to a secondary infection from the bowel in the vast majority of the instances. These infections occur by the bacteria being carried in the portal stream, and, the liver not destroying them, they gain the biliary radicals and infect the bile, and from this, infection of the gall-bladder and the ducts takes place.

The True and Only Treatment of Intestinal Toxemia

Since practically all gut organisms are facultative [able to live under more than one specific set of environmental conditions], persistency with dietary modification does not long cary out reduction of toxin production, and certainly not longer than thirty days. In the words of the famous researcher Anthony Bassler, M.D.: "Let me state briefly and candidly: a diet may change the biology and chemistry for a short period, but in a short time the facultative abilities of intestinal organism make them able to multiply, and the infection and toxemia are again present, no matter how opposite the diet may be. The sooner the internist, gastro-enterologist, the food faddists, food types of sanitaria, and the public realize this, the sooner good work in intestinal toxemia will be accomlished." [1930]

The big picture all naturalists, dieticians, nutritional counselers, and physicians never learned, is that intestinal toxemia represents a chronic infection from childhood. A change of dietary does bring temporary amelioration for a short time, but since most infective organisms are facultative, they adapt, living deep inside the intestinal mucosa, catarrh and villa, and again start their colonies and generate their toxins. A meat eater can go on a vegetarian diet, experience a general overall sense of well being, but in about a month's time, the inhibited organisms will exert their facultative abilities and the original putrefactive chemistry and toxicity will return. The medical profession at large just does not understand this and grossly over looks the fact that the biggest infective foci in the organism is the human gut, with a daily output of some 125 billion bacteria, deposited in about 1/3 to 1/2 of solid weight in stools, and that these organisms often and easily escape into the blood and lymph along with their toxins.

The Food is not the issue

In the majority of intestinal infections, primary toxemias are not due to one or more organisms digesting particular food pabulum at only one level of the gut. The process is a symbiotic gradient. Starting with the teeth, its infections and the level of mastication, the biological additions descend down past the tonsils, into the stomach and beyond. On the way some twenty feet down, there are changes in acid and alkali media, one set of bacteria prepare the way for another set of bacteria, down into the lower levels of the ileum where the putrefactive processes begin. The ileo-cecal region is the toxic cauldron, preparing the digesta to be deposited into the fertive colon beginning the inspissation phenomenon of compaction and putrefaction.

Instead of bacteria causing infection with individuality, the germs take on individuality in keeping with the chemic changes in the medium. For example, in carbohydrate fermentation the evolved toxins can be butyric or acetic acid, or alcohol; and in nitrogenous fermentation the evolved toxin is putrescin, cadaverin, indol or sepsin. The bacteria are the same, but the media on which they act, and their symbiosis with other competitors vary most widely. The specificity of the bacterium is mutable, capable of starting fermentation; while the toxic properties geneated from starch and meat are potential, and can survive on either.

It is therefore evident that to break up the chain of biological events, one must stop a potent step of the process of fermentation or putrefaction, that being usually one to a few infective organisms that have made their nest. One must therefore know their microbiology and have knowledge of the putrefactive bacteria, and how to turn on the immunity to stop the infection.

Clostridium welchii

More popularly this organism is known as bacillus aerogenes capsulatus, or, clostridium perfringens, or "gas bacillus," a species which is the chief causative agent of gas gangrene in man and yet often found in the human bowel, often 2 to 6 per field in high power microscopy. Greater numbers than this represent a distinct infection and produces a true hemotoxin as well as other toxic bodies. Food sources: bananas, legumes, frankfurters.

Bacteriologists declared as early as 1901 that it is no wonder that bacterial toxins (secretions) provoke numerous nutritive and pathological changes. The road back is not dietary, as there are so many kinds of facultative and mutable bacteria, when we consider the great variety of chemical mediums in which they are developed. The bacteria not only have their individuality determined for them by the peculiar chemistry of the environment, but also their physical development, and even the ability to adapt by gene swapping with other bacteria.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823), after training in London and a period as an army surgeon, spent his whole career as a country doctor in his native county of Gloucestershire in the West of England. His research was based on careful case-studies and clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could explain the viruses themselves. So successful did his innovation prove that by 1840 the British government had banned alternative preventive treatments against smallpox. "Vaccination," the word Jenner invented for his treatment (from the Latin vacca, a cow), was adopted by Pasteur for immunization against any disease.

In the generic sense, the process of triggering immune response, in an effort to protect against infectious disease, works by 'priming' the immune system with an 'immunogen'. Stimulating immune response, via use of an infectious agent, is known as immunization. Vaccinations involve the administration of one or more immunogens, in the form of live, but weakened (attenuated) infectious agents, which normally are either weaker, but closely-related species (as with smallpox and cowpox), or strains weakened by some process. In such cases, an immunogen is called a vaccine.

Most vaccines are given in the form of injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the gut. Live attenuated Polio, some Typhoid and Cholera Vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based in the bowel, called enteric vaccines. The vaccines of Bassler were given in two forms: 1. Subcutaneous injection; 2. Rectal douche. Bassler's bacterial vaccine therapy was used on more than 5,000 patients with astonishing success. In all his work, autogenous vaccines were mostly used, those cultured directly from the patient, although stock vaccines were also used once the infected agent(s) was identified, e.g. streptococcus or staphyloccocus. He preferred the rectal route since the intestinal canal is the most active source of phagocytosis, but admitted that for out patient treatment, subcutaneous was preferred, given one injection, twice weekly of the killed organism(s). Killed vaccines are composed of "inactivated" microorganisms which cause a particular infectious disease. Because these microorganisms are dead they are unable to replicate once introduced into the dog's body and therefore are incapable of producing disease. However, their presence will induce an immune response. Therefore, in terms of some adverse reactions, killed vaccines are considered to pose fewer risks. In terms of protective immunity, however, killed vaccines produce weak immune responses and provide a shorter duration of protective immunity. In many cases, killed vaccines must be administered in large or frequent antigenic doses to induce a sufficient immune response to yield protection in the event of disease exposure.

Early in the last century fifty-seven of the leading physicians of Britain met in London and discussed before the Royal Society of Medicine this problem of autointoxication caused by a toxic bowel. Autointoxication is defined as "the poisoning of the body, or some part of the body, by toxic matter generated therein." Twenty-two (22) poisons were identified as originating in a toxic colon, the author adds many more that have since been identified.

 
Phenol: (Carbolic Acid) may be injected onto the nerve carrying the exaggerated nerve signals to produce a similar kind of controlled time-bound muscle paralysis like botulin of the hyper-spastic muscle. Cadaverin: a biogenic amines of protein degradation products of a toxic nature. Cadaverine is a foul-smelling polyamine produced by protein hydrolysis during putrefaction of animal tissue. Cadaverine is a toxic diamine with the formula NH2(CH2)5NH2, which is similar to putrescine. Cadaverine is also known by the names 1,5-pentanediamine and pentamethylenediamine. Cadaverine is the decarboxylation product of the amino acid lysine. It is not purely associated with putrefaction, it is also produced in small quantities by living beings. It is partially responsible for the distinctive smell of semen.
Agamatine: a bioactive metabolite of arginine. Amines found in gut contents include agamatine, tyramine, pyrrolidine, histamine, piperidine, cadaverine, putrescine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (Drasar and Hill, 1974). Species belonging to the genera Clostridium, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides have been shown to form amines in substantial quantities. Although amines have been linked to migraine, hypertension, hepatic coma and tyramine from food has been implicated in heart failure, the physiological significance to the host is largely unknown. Indole: White, lustrous, flaky substance with unpleasant odour. Occurs naturally in jasmine oil and orange flowers. Can be extracted from coal tar and faeces. Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact.
Hydrogen sulfide: chemical compound, H2S, a colorless, extremely poisonous gas that has a very disagreeable odor, much like that of rotten eggs. It is slightly soluble in water and is soluble in carbon disulfide [Neurotoxicity associated with exposure]. Dissolved in water, it forms a very weak dibasic acid that is sometimes called hydrosulfuric acid, a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis.

The biology of sulphur in the human gut has escaped serious attention until recently, and thus very little is known of the amounts and sources of sulphur in the diet, and their subsequent digestion and absorption from the intestine. An understanding of the microbial metabolism of sulphur is however well advanced, and in anaerobic ecosystems, like the large intestine, reduced sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which are highly noxious, can be formed. Emerging evidence suggests sulphide may be toxic to the colonic epithelium. The chief sources of sulphur in the diet are derived from dietary inorganic sulphur (sulphate, sulphite) and the sulphur amino acids, methionine, cysteine, cystine and taurine.

Cresol: hydroxytoluene; methylphenol; a mixture of the three isomeric cresols, o-, m-, and p-cresol, obtained from coal tar. Its properties are similar to those of phenol, but it is less poisonous; used as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Syn: tricresol. Phenolic compounds are absorbed in the colon, detoxified by the liver and excreted in urine principally as p-cresols (> 90% of urinary phenolic compounds) with the remainder being made up of phenol and 4-ethylphenol. Physiological levels of these compounds in human colonic contents are normally low as bacterial metabolism of aromatic amino acids requires an electron accepting process e.g. nitrate reduction. Nevertheless phenolic compounds have been detected in colon contents from sudden death victims and distal concentrations were four times that detected in proximal regions. Simple phenols were the major products of aromatic amino acid metabolism in the distal bowel supporting the argument that protein metabolism becomes more important in the distal colon as carbohydrate sources are depleted.
Butyric Acid: Among short chain fatty acids butyric acid toxic compounds (stench agents like rancid butter fat) are absorped in the colon mainly as butyric acid. Botulin: a muscle-nerve paralyzing bacterial toxin, causes the most severe form of food poisoning.  The disease is called Botulism, the potentially deadly food poisoning characterized by muscle paralysis.
Putrescin: a colorless crystalline ptomaine with a foul odor that is produced in decaying animal matter. Cancer patients excrete higher levels of N-aceyl and acetoxy derivatives of putrescine and cadaverine as compared to healthy individuals. Putrescine has been shown to regulate cell growth and differentiation in the gastrointestinal epithelium. An emerging area of interest however is in their role as N-nitrosation precursors resulting in the formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosocompounds Urobilin: A uroporphyrin; an acyclic tetrapyrrole that is one of the natural breakdown products of heme via choleglobin, a brown pigment, an oxidized form of urobilinogen, found in the feces and sometimes in urine left standing in the air; a urinary pigment that gives a varying orange-yellow coloration to urine according to its degree of oxidation. Bilirubin is toxic to tissues, therefore, it is transported in the blood bound to albumin. Only a minute amount of free form is present in the blood. Bilirubin in the intestine is reduced to urobilins.
Histimine: Undigested complete proteins can cause the amino acid histidine to be changed, by putrefactive intestinal bacteria into a toxic substance, histamine. This substance is found in abnormally large amounts in the blood of many allergic persons. Major emphasis in overcoming food allergies, therefore, must be on improving the digestion and destroying undesirable intestinal bacteria. Ammonia: One of the most toxic compounds to the biologic world. Ammonia concentrations detected in human faeces range from 12 to 30 mM and excretion has been shown to increase with increased protein intake. Ammonia exhibits a number of effects that suggest that it may be involved in tumour promotion. Concentrations as low as 5 - 10 mM have been shown to alter the morphology and intermediary metabolism of intestinal cells, affect DNA synthesis and reduce the lifespan of cells (Visek, 1978). Moreover, it has been shown to increase the incidence of colon carcinomas induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.
Muscarine: A toxin with neurologic effects, muscarine was first extracted from Amanita muscaria in 1869. It provided useful information about neurohumoral physiology. Since the late 1800s, pharmacologists have referred to the stimulation of postganglionic choline receptors as the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine (cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, salivation, lacrimation, bronchoconstriction, gastrointestinal stimulation). Methylmercaptan: or methanethiol (CH3SH) is produced from the degradation of the amino acid L-Methionine. Amalgam Mercury Can Combine With the Bacterial Toxin Methylmercaptan To Produce An Even More Toxic Species, Neurotoxicity associated with exposure.
Methane: "marsh gas" or flammable gas. Neurotoxicity associated with exposure. A canary needs only a small amount of methane in its system before toxic levels are reached. Indican: a substance found (as its salts) in sweat and in variable amounts in urine; indicative, when in quantity, of protein putrefaction in the intestine (indicanuria). The urinary indican test has long been recognized as being a valuable tool in helping to assess bowel status. It has been shown that when the amino acid tryptophan is broken down in a putrefactive bowel, a potentially toxic substance, indican is produced in larger amounts than normal. It is suggested by some leaders in the field of preventative medicine that patients with positive indican test may be at greater risk of intestinal (or gastric) cancer, and skin eruptions and disorders.
Indolethylamine: the aliphatic chain that lies between the aromatic ring system, and the basic nitrogen, for almost all alkaloids in the plant kingdom, is two carbons long. The phenethylamine or indolethylamine (Tryptamine) system is a foundation of nearly all known pharmaceutical agents that are based upon alkaloids. • Sulpherroglobine

Muscarin: A solid crystalline substance, C5H13NO2, found in the toadstool (Agaricus muscarius), and in putrid fish. It is a typical ptomaine, and a violent poison.

• Ptomarropine • Pentamethylendiamine
Neurin: its action and must be classed with the exceedingly active poisons. It has been shown both by the experiments of Schmidt and Weiss and also by those recorded in this paper that the poisonous neurin may be formed from cholin by bacteria. In its physiological action neurin agrees closely with muscarin; especially to be noted here is the paralytic action on the heart and its power to increase the intestinal movements to such an extent that continual evacuations occur. Sepsin: a soluble poison (ptomaine) present in putrid blood. It is also formed in the putrefaction of proteid matter in general.
Ethereal sulfates: Eugen Baumann (1846-1896) had interest in the formation of sulfates in the body led to the finding that urinary ethereal sulfates were related to putrefactive decomposition occurring in the intestine. These are formed only by combination with phenolic hydroxyl groups, the product being an aryl sulfuric acid, R-OSO; formed biologically via glutathione in the liver and excreted in the urine • Propionic acid: Bacteria of the genus Propionibacterium produce propionic acid as the end product of their anaerobic metabolism. These bacteria are commonly found in the stomachs of ruminants, and their activity is partially responsible for the odor of both Swiss cheese and sweat.
Mydaleine: A toxic alkaloid (ptomaine) obtained from putrid flesh and from herring brines. As a poison it is said to execute profuse diarrhoea, vomiting, and intestinal inflammation. Parvolin: A nonoxygenous ptomaine, formed in the putrefaction of albuminous matters, especially of horseflesh and mackerel.
Tetanin: A poisonous base (ptomaine) formed in meat broth through the agency of a peculiar microbe from the wound of a person who has died of tetanus; - so called because it produces tetanus as one of its prominent effects. Tyrotoxicon: A ptomaine discovered by Vaughan in putrid cheese and other dairy products, and producing symptoms similar to cholera infantum. Chemically, it appears to be related to, or identical with, diazobenzol.
N-nitrosocompounds: Many N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are known to exert carcinogenic/mutagenic effects following the formation of potent DNA alkylating agents during metabolism. Preformed NOC are found in cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and occupational sources. However endogenous formation provides the most potent source of exposure for humans and may be acid or bacterially catalysed or cell mediated hence N-nitrosation may occur at a number of sites in the body. The large intestine provides a site for bacterially mediated N-nitrosation reactions due to the presence of nitrosating agents from dissimilatory nitrate metabolism and nitrogenous residues from endogenous and dietary sources. These nitrosatable substrates include, dietary proteins and peptides, amino acids, secondary amines, indoles and phenols derived from protein metabolism and glycine derivatives such as the bile acid glycocholic acid. Large intestinal N-nitrosation has previously received little attention due to analytical difficulties. In terms of colonic nitrosation, the majority of the microorganisms mentioned above are facultative anaerobes and the majority of human large intestinal microorganisms are obligate anaerobes with numbers of facultative anaerobes being many orders of magnitude lower (Gibson, 1996). Nevertheless, NOC's have been detected in faecal samples from healthy human volunteers and excretion is related to dietary nitrate and red meat consumption. Nitrate and red meat may contribute to large intestinal N-nitrosation due to the formation of nitrosating agents from dissimilatory nitrate metabolism and nitrogenous residues from colonic protein degradation. Aromatic amines: In mammalian systems, azo dyes and nitro-PAHs are reduced to aromatic amines by enzymes from intestinal bacteria and from the liver. The reduction occurs through cleavage of the azo bridge in azo dyes and conversion of the nitro group to an amino group in the nitro-PAHs (1,3,5-7). These reduction processes are accompanied by the decolorization of the azo dyes and nitro-PAHs (7,8). Several anaerobic bacteria from the human intestinal tract are capable of reducing azo dyes and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the corresponding aromatic amines with enzymes that have azoreductase and nitroreductase activities. The majority of bacteria with these activities belong to the genera Clostridium and Eubacterium. Azo dyes and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are two groups of chemicals that are abundant in our environment. Azo dyes are used in the textile, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. Nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been detected in carbon black, photocopier toners, urban air particulates, diesel fuel emissions, used motor oil, barbecued foods, and tea leaves (9).
 

From this list, the practitioner must understand that a predominate chemical group of toxins produced by bowel flora are the thioethers - organic sulfides, R-S-Rs - some of which are more toxic than botulin, and are some of the most potent endocrine suppressing agents. To speak of detoxification without addressing the bowel infections is merely a temporary, remedial exercise.

We all agree also that one of our biggest impediments to the healing process is chronic acidosis. One should realize that the predominate gas produced by coliform bacteria is hydrogen, which when released from the bowel and penetrates into the blood stream as a gas, contributes to the acid-base balance load, offsetting the acid load of interstitial tissue, i.e. the lymph. Therefore, once again, bowel toxemia represents one of our greatest clinic problems.

Conclusions

Experimental and clinical studies dating back to the early 1900's have shown that faecal and urinary excretion of protein metabolites (ammonia, phenols and indoles, NOC and sulphides) are elevated as a consequence of increased meat intakes. Colonic protein metabolism may be one mechanism to explain the epidemiological relationship between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk as certain products of colonic protein degradation such as ammonia, NOC and possibly sulphides, are known to exert toxic effects. Fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to decrease ammonia as shown by Kendall, as well as urinary phenol and cresol excretion in humans. This may reflect increased carbohydrate metabolism at the expense of protein metabolism as carbohydrate is the energy supplying nutrient favoured by the gut microflora.

It should be obvious to every physcian that the question of dietary and even overeating must be determined by each individual for himself; for it is a question of intestinal infection, digestive efficiency, and available dietary. The fact that one person is best off vegan, is no proof that the next patient is. Bowel intoxication is a very individual matter. Two men persist in overeating and taxing their resistance with equal amounts of toxin poisoning. Both have mirgaine headaches. One takes drugs for relief, and dies of heart attack at forty-five; the other takes no drug relief, gets over his headaches at fifty by stamina, and dies of premature old age at sixty of a stroke. Both suffered intestinal toxemia, yet both would probably have received similar, doctor prescibed drugs. Who was clueless?

DIAGNOSIS

The metabolites of pathogenic bacteria appear in the urine and can be quantified and qualified by ordinary chemical reagents. The author has spent many years developing these tests and making observations in patients.

THE ULTIMATE IN-HOUSE, BIOLOGIC LABORATORY

FOR PRACTITIONERS OF NATURAL MEDICINE

  • * Urinalysis reagents

    Format: Color matched, qualitative tests for easy reading and fast diagnostics. Results in seconds! Shipped in one ounce dropper bottles by dry weight, the bottles are constituted with distilled water upon arrival.

    1. Carcinochrome Reaction (CCR): for the detection of peptides in urine known to be associated with the pre-cancerous state.
    2. Putrechrome Reaction (PCR): for the detection of putrefactive ketones, putrescine, cadaverine, and acetoacetic acid.

    3. Indole/Skatole: Products of intestinal putrefaction formed in degradation of tryptophan (indole). Skatole formed in the intestine by the bacterial decomposition of L-tryptophan and found in fecal matter, to which it imparts its characteristic odor.
    4. Indican: indicative, when in quantity, of protein putrefaction in the intestine (indicanuria).
    5. Sulfafloc: For the detection of ethereal sulfates representing the highly toxic species like methylmercaptan and other thioethers due to liberation of bacteria found in the oral cavity and large bowel.
    6. McWilliams test for Microalbuminuria: a highly sensitive test for the detection of slight amounts of albumin, a known harbinger for pre-renal failure, and nephron damage by diabetes mellitus and hypertension. O
    7. Calcium Test: useful for detection of calcium dumping syndrome. Urine when containing high amounts of sodium ions along with calcium indicate a negative calcium balance, especially in BAD (basic american diet) dietary, interstitial acidosis, and post-menopausal states.
    8. Sternheimer Stain: a unique and colorful stain for urinalysis. For identification of cells, casts, stones, gravel, and the famous "glitter cells" of acute urinary tract infection.

    toxic bowel putrefactive chemical of the saccharo-butyric type!

    stop talking toxins, measure them and see them!

Nutrition is a science which studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. Between the extremes of optimal health, and death from starvation or malnutrition, there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet and supplemental nutrition. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as scurvy, obesity or osteoporosis, as well as psychological and behavioral problems. Moreover, excessive ingestion of elements that have a degenerative role in health, (e.g. lead, mercury (dental amalgams), PCBs, dioxins), may incur toxic and potentially carcinogenic effects, depending on the dose. More importantly, dysbiosis, the state of intestinal putrefaction, poses the most important and toxic potential to daily human health. The science of BIO-LOGIC helps to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health and the disorders of our patients.

The human body comprises many complex biochemicals - proteins, enzymes, fatty acids (lipids), nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), and carbohydrates (e.g. sugars). These compounds reduced to simplicity consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and utilize minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Clinical studies must take carefully into account the state of the body before digestion (the dietary history) and after digestion (the metabolic end products). Comparing the food intake to the waste output can determine the specific types of compounds and elements absorbed by the body as well as their utilization or non-utilization. The effect that the absorbed matter has on the body can be determined by finding the difference between the pre-ingestion state and the post-digestion states. The effects are easily discernable when the compounds are reduced to their essential elements - carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and electrolytes.

Thus, the nutritional status can be viewed as a flow system of nutrients IN and metabolic wastes OUT. The efficiency of digestion and metabolism can be readily discerned by BIO-LOGIC's basic laboratory tests. How one views these complex events determines the laboratory tests required. The medical doctor will order such tests as blood chemistries, the CBC (complete blood count), urinalysis, etc. The nutritionist will consider mineral analysis of hair, salivary hormones, blood chemistries, etc. Most all of these tests require outside laboratory, delay in treatment, and cost burdens on both practitioner and patient.

Would not a series of saliva, blood and urine chemistries, reduced to their utter simplicity, and ran in-house for a few dollars within minutes offer the final solution?

The answer is, IT DOES!

Laboratory at the Nevis Clinic

In the primary care setting where the objective is recuperation of ordinary aches and pains, digestive complaints, glandular insufficiencies, and common infections, simple laboratory (BIO-LOGIC) offers a practial and comprehensive means of analysis and as well as follow up.

Alternative practitioners often criticize medical practitioners by saying that conventional medicine fails to treat the cause of a problem, and only treats the symptoms. While this is often a legitimate complaint, it is also somewhat hypocritical for 'Naturopaths' to argue this because most Naturopaths usually do not know what the cause of a problem is either, most simply cannot diagnose, and they also have a vast lack of physical tests or laboratory methods for determining the cause.

Consider these features:

  • Digestive efficiency of proteins by three simple urine reagents and a spot of blood. One test is also a pre-screening for predilection to the cancer diathesis!
  • Digestive efficiency of carbohydrates: detection of hypoglycemia and diabetes is straight forward, but the early signs are just as important as well as how much saccharo-butyric putrefaction occurs as an index of inefficiency and bacterial (bowel) autotoxemia.
  • Digestive efficiency of fats is not as much an issue as is its mobilization once in the system, and thyroid efficiency to help burn it.
  • Putrefaction: a loosely used term, however most do not understand it, let alone how to analyse it and treat it. The indican test will only show the most gross cases from obstipation but BIO-LOGIC's putrechrome reaction (PCR) will detect ordinary as well as insipient bacterial dysbiosis. The test only requires 3 ml of urine and 3 drops of reagent.
  • Sodium: by understanding the eternal dual between sodium and potassium, and by understanding that most ingest excessive amounts of salt, the urinary index makes evident the need for dietary reform.
  • Calcium: by understanding Vitamin D and sunshine, and calcium loss due to excessive sodium intake, by taking both calcium ion and sodium urinary excretion ratios, proper dosage and hydrochloric acid efficiency becomes evident.
  • Iron: A single drop of blood tells all.
  • Iodine: understood from studies in evolutionary biology, assume deficiency until proven otherwise.
  • Magnesium: foot odor and vegetable intake is simple enough, urinary excretion index shows more. Magnesium deficiency is also evident on the thrid lead of an EKG.
  • pH: The power of hydrogen reveals the mineral deficiencies as well as a most potent source - autointoxication from saccharo-butyric, bacterial putrefaction.
  • Vitamin deficiencies: everyone knows about it but few have ways of objectively monitoring needs and dosages.

COST OF ALL THESE TESTS? About one dollar!

BIO-LOGIC is a comprehensive approach to the very terrain of disease and disorders:

  • Acidosis as a grand impediment to the healing process.
  • Bowel autointoxication as the most potent source of toxins and thus glandular suppression and immunosupression.
  • Mineral insufficiencies causing metabolic and glandular insufficiencies.
  • Latent infections of the teeth, tonsils, sinuses, gall bladder, small bowel, colon, and urinary tract as potent foci reducing immunity and often causing vague feelings of not being well.
  • Subclinical anemias and red blood cell deformities that can scarcely be picked up by ordinary, mechanical cell counters.
  • Thrombocytosis as a harbinger to fatal heart attacks, stroke, and DVT's.
  • Latent kidney stones and infections, urinary casts, microalbuminuria as harbingers of pre-renal failure (a growing epidemic).
  • Survey tests that point to future predilection of cancer development.

THERAPEUTICS

High priced nutriceuticals are not necessarily the answers. Many products offer good therapeutics, many are just plain junk. Without an objective set of methods to analyze the metabolic effects of what you dispense, the only other method you have is reduced to the patient saying they feel better, or the removal of an ache or pain or other symptom.

Let us show you the objective methods by analyzing the saliva, blood and urine. You can perform near miracles with pennies worth of liquid iodine, crystal ascorbic acid, and herbal tea. No joke, just fact.


BACK TO REFORMATION

References

1. Forster, J. (1903). Bakteriologie und hygiene. Strassburg,, J. H. E. Heitz (Heitz & Mèundel).

2. Dakin Collection
The Dr. Henry Drysdale Dakin Collection was donated by his stepdaughters, who were the daughters of Dr. Christian A. Herter. The Collection consists of science titles, chiefly in the fields of biochemistry and chemistry, from the libraries of Dakin (biochemist, 1880-1952) and Herter (physician and biochemist, 1865-1910). In 1905 Dakin joined Herter's research laboratory in New York City and produced in the same year the first of a series of papers on Dakin's most important work, oxidation of organic compounds in the animal body.

3. The attila of the gout : being a peculiar account of that distemper, in which the vanity of all that hitherto has been writ and practis'd to remove it, and an infallible method to cure it are demonstrated, with ample testimonies of patients cured. By John Marten.

4. Roubenoff, R. Gout and hyperuricemia. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990;16:539-50.

5. Autotoxemia, Bassler, 1930.

6. A Primer of Urinalysis, Kark, Lawrence, et. al. Ames Co.1963

7. Rafii F, Cerniglia CE. An anaerobic nondenaturing gel assay for the detection of azoreductase from anaerobic bacteria. J Microbiol Methods 2:139-148 (1990).
8. Rafii F, Franklin W, Cerniglia CE. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:2146-2151 (1990).

9. Cerniglia CE. Metabolism of 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene by intestinal microflora, In: Germfree Research: Microflora, Control, and Its Application to the Biochemical Sciences. New York:Alan R. Liss, 1985;133-137.

10. Microbe Hunters, by Paul De Kruif (p. 1926)

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