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"Ground" vs. "Earth" vs. Common vs. Negative Terminals
Misconceptions in Electricity, Currents, and Galvanotherapy

 

Until recently, electricity in biology has been assumed to be solely electronic, that is until Dr Peter Mitchell brought to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory. A proton pump, versus an eletromotive force, is an integral membrane protein that is capable of moving protons across a biological membrane. The proton goes in the opposite direction of an electron. In the mitochondrial membrane, it is the proton pump that loads ATP for electric energy. What lead to all the confusion: Science itself!

In The Beginning of our modern era, the early pioneers studying electricity had no means of determining what, if anything, comprised an electric current, so they arbitrarily declared that current was a flow of positive charge, flowing from the positive terminal of the voltage source, through the external circuit, and returning to the negative terminal. Benjamin Franklin realized that electricity was a flow of charge and he believed that charge flowed from positive to negative. This is called "Conventional Current", and scientists and engineers generally use this concept when discussing current flow on schematics, even though, electronically speaking, its actually opposite.

We now know that, in most electronic materials, current is actually carried by negatively charged electrons, as if floating in a cloud around the conductor. However, in the organic world like biology, we actually have positive, proton currents (proticity), and negative "electron" currents (electricity) simultaneously. Unfortunately, electron current dominates pop culture, causing students to be confused between Conventional Current and Electron Current. "Ground" is thus a severely misunderstood and misused term, not only in electronics, but it just about every field of thinking. Back in the 70's in premed, I asked by physics professor about Earthing in relation to health, and he not only scoffed at me, he lectured me on how rediculous it was to even think it! In today's dialectic, let's for it.

In order to teach electricity we use the analogy of electric current to the flow of water in a garden hose: the water is the electron cloud, the pipe diameter are the "volts", the water pressure is the "amps" or rate of flow; and the roughness or smoothness of the interior wall of the hose is the "resistance" to flow. Any turbulence to the water flow in the pipe, whether obstruction, vibration or even flopping, is equivalent in electricity to heat generated as wastage of "loss" of energy, or inductive capacitance (phase angle).

Now For the Misconceptions

First, the basic problem that can occur in the mind of the student is that electric wires are like empty pipes. But, the power supply, battery or wall socket, doesn't really fill them up. Instead, wires are already pre-filled, alive with a floating charge or electron cloud already in the air. When a wire connects to a 'source' currents always appear everywhere in a circuit, all at the same time when current flows. "Current" means charge-flow. When a circle-circuit of movable charges starts flowing, "current" appears in the entire ring. That's the basic circuit rule. You click ON your portable radio, and almost instantly you hear sound as electric airwaves are demodulated by the unit into audible tones and sounds. And this applies fundamentally and extremely importantly in understanding "bioenergetics." Let me explain…

Electric circuits and the human body behave analogously like wheels and belts mechanically speaking. In this way, its like the metal ring of a bike-chain. it doesn't "originate" from a particular location on the sprocket, just like electrolytes in the blood and lymph, they are already there-there. In Russia, this is called "physics of the alive." Voltage doesn't "start out" at one point. Instead, the entire circle-circuit is made of the chain. All of the chain was there before any power supply existed. With bike chains, when a force is applied, the whole thing turns. With electronic circuits, when a potential difference is applied, like two poles of a battery, positive and negative, all the movable charges inside the ring (inside the circuit) oscillate, they all start moving as a unit, like a wired chain in a complete circle. But those charges were already inside the wires before any battery was connected. Wires are thus really like water-filled hoses, ready to pump but "static", zero volts, zero amps, but "charged" and ready to go. The power comes from charges separated, held at bay, in a potential source like a battery.

Second, electric potential (charge) can only exist between two points, and one single spot on a circuit never "has a voltage." This is true because voltage is a bit like altitude: an object cannot "have an altitude," since height can only be measured between two points. It's meaningless to discuss the height or length or altitude of an object. Altitude above what? Above the floor? Above the ground outside the building? Altitude above Earth's center? Any object will have infinitely many altitudes at the same time! It is already in hyperspace.

Voltage has exactly the same problem: one terminal can only "have a voltage" when compared to another terminal. Voltage acts like length: voltage and length are double-ended measurements. Or in other words, one terminal in a circuit always has many different voltages at the same time, depending on where we place one probe test lead and the other meter lead to make a measurement.

Third, in circuits the driving force is provided by the positive and the negative power supply terminals, both at the same time. And, most important: the path for current is through the power supply itself. Power supplies simply make short circuits when wires are connected in a loop. An ideal power supply acts like a zero-ohm resistor. Think about it: in a dynamo coil, the charges pass through the coil and back out again. The metallic wire has a very low resistance, it has a floating cloud of electrons tightly wrapped around it at any time. Same thing with batteries: the path for current is from one pole through the battery and back out again. The battery plates are simply shorted out by a connecting circuit or in terms of the human body, by the very conductive electrolytes of the blood and interstitial fluids. In electrophysiology, the body is labeled as the "volume conductor." Inside that body-bag of fluid, are nerve-wires, with a protective sheath called a myelin sheath: the insulating covering that surrounds an axon with multiple spiral layers of myelin, that is discontinuous at the nodes of Ranvier, and that increases the speed at which a nerve impulse can travel along an axon. — called also medullary sheath.

FLASHLIGHT Example:

Here is an up-to-date description of an operating flashlight.

When the switch is ON and the circuit is completed to the batteries, one end of the filament gets charged positive, the other negative, the charges start inside the tungsten filament and float to their surface. This forces the filament's own charges to start flowing and glowing. The charges move out of the filament and into one wire, while at the same time, more charges are coming into the other end of the filament. These charges are supplied by the metal wires and, before the switch was turned on, all the conductors were already full of movable charges. Continuing, the charges that were in the filament will flow out into one wire, move slowly as direct current to the battery which actually takes a minute or so for moving electrons get there, then flow through the battery and back out again. They exit from the battery's other terminal, flow back to the other end of the filament, then they end up where they started thus a "complete circuit." The charges are like a drive-belt, or like a rotating wheel or a bike chain. The battery pushes the charges, but it doesn't really supply the charges, it just pumps them. The copper and the tungsten supply the charges which flow in the flashlight circuit. Electron charges of direct current (DC) move quite slowly, but since they all start moving at the same time and in one direction, the light bulb lights up instantly because it gets hot from resistance in the wire.

Basically, an incandescent light bulb is a controlled fire on display. Just like the human body, which glows heat equivalent to a 60 watt light bulb. When electrical current makes contact with the base of the bulb, electricity enters and heats the tungsten filament housed inside. And when the filament heats up, "incandescence" is created, which is light produced by heat. Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature. The term derives from the Latin verb incandescere, to glow white. Incandescence is a special case of thermal radiation/excitation. Incandescence usually refers specifically to visible light, while thermal radiation refers also to infrared or any other electromagnetic radiation emitted off a hot substance.

Fourth: any positive ions inside a battery are extremely movable. They're certainly not locked in place. If they were, then batteries would be insulators, and wouldn't work. Some batteries are based on the flow of positive ions in one direction and negative ions in the other. Lead-acid batteries are different. In the acid only the protons are flowing. Acids are proton-conductors. Proticity is a form of electricity characterized by the flow of protons (H+) instead of electrons. The are typically generated by the mitochondrial membrane as organelles, similar to bacteria, within cells. The "proton pumping" generates ATP. Again, the body is an acid producing organism.

Now, think of a wire wrapped coil and a moving magnet. Connect the coil wires to the light bulb. Thrust a supermagnet into the coil, and the light bulb flashes briefly. Where did the charges come from? How can a moving magnet create charges? IT DOESN'T. Dynamos and batteries are charge-pumps. The moving magnet with its north/south magnetic field forces the wire's own charges to start moving. A pump does not supply the stuff being pumped! The moving magnet causes a current of electrons to flow, an electron cloud of charges, because it applies an EM (electromagnetic) pumping-force to the movable charges already inside the metal.

 

Here's a clarification. Many intro textbooks provide the wrong definition of "conductor" which is extremely misleading. They'll teach you that conductors "let charges pass through" (or, they electrically pass through electrons or current. NO! Conductors aren't like hollow pipes. Conductors aren't transparent to electricity. Instead, "conductor" means "a material which is full of mobile charges." Conductors are like pre-filled pipes. Wires on earth are floating in a dome of electromagnetic energy called Shumann's resonator. It's energy waiting to happen.

Conductors obey ohm's law: when we apply a voltage-difference to the ends of a wire, the flow of charges depends on the wire's resistance, I = V x R. It's the wire's own charges which do the flowing. Think about it: air is an insulator, even a vacuum is an insulator, but how can a vacuum block the flow of charges? Vacuum doesn't need to. There are no movable charges present in a vacuum, that's what makes it insulating.

All of this leads to an important concept. Whenever we take a piece of wire and hook the ends together to form a closed loop, we've created an "invisible drive-belt," a loop of movable charge inside the non-moving wire. Thrust a magnet pole into the metal loop, and all the charges of the wire will move like a wheel.

FIFTH, currents aren't backwards, because electric currents aren't flows of electrons only. Specifically, the polarity of the flowing charges depends on the type of conductor. Yes, in solid metals, the movable charges are electrons. But there are large numbers of conductors where no electrons can move. The closest ones are your brain and nervous system: simultaneous flows of positive and negative in opposite directions ions, with no electron flows at all.

Wonderment: acids are conductive because they're full of H+ positive hydrogen ions. Another name for an H+ ion is "the proton." When you put some amperes through acid, the current is a flow of protons, not metallic electrons. And, if there's some ground-currents in the earth-dirt, and the dirt is acidic rather than a salty mix, then those currents are proton-flows! When you EARTH with bare feet on a sunny day, if its an acid-rain soil, only proton flows are migrating through you skin, up through your feet.

AND, "amperes" can be electrons flowing, or protons flowing, or positive sodium ions passing through negative chloride ions going the other way, like happens in your kidneys. Or, fast electrons going one way in a spark, while slow nitrogen ions go forward or back depending on whether they're positively or negatively ionized. And in p-type semiconductors (transistors), the current is a flow of "lattice vacancies" in the crystal matrix! Each vacancy exposes an excess silicon protons, so the vacancies each carry a genuine positive charge, not really a "vacancy" because there is no vacuum. "Holes" move by electron-transfer, yet each hole really is positively charged.

With all the above complexity, how can we possibly describe what's happening inside circuits? Easy: it's already done for us. We cover up the moving charges and ignore them. We ignore their flow-speed, and their quantity. We ignore their polarity. Instead we add up all the various charges which might be inside any conductor, calculate the total flow-rate, and call this "amperes." Is your conductor a hose full of salt water? Put a clamp-on ammeter around it, and read off the amperes. The ion density doesn't matter. The ion speed doesn't matter, and it even could be an acid-hose full of protons, instead of a seawater-hose of mixed salts. Amps is amps.

Amperes are also called "conventional current," or just "electric current."
Very important: amperes are not charge-flow. A conductor might have one amp, but this doesn't tell us anything about the charges inside. There could be a few charges flowing fast, or lots of charges flowing slow. There could be positive charges going forwards, or negative electrons going backwards, or both at the same time as with human bodies receiving DC electric shock. All that stuff is covered up, and all we have left is the amperes ...amperes of conventional current. Amps and amps, volts are volts. They could be our eternal duals, sodium vs. potassium, magnesium vs. calcium, protons vs. electrons, matters not, that matters.

Now, let's go back to GROUND [GND] versus COMMON [COM] versus EARTH.

"Ground" is confusing because the word is nearly always used loosely.

In circuits, we almost always choose one power supply terminal, positive or negative, to be the "common," and we connect one voltmeter lead to it. Most electronic gadgets and appliances are not really 'grounded', so we really shouldn't call it "ground" because it's not connected to a metal stake driven into earth-dirt! Instead it's just the traditional point for making voltage readings with a probe set on VOLTMETER. It's a silent assumption! Since voltages are complicated double-ended measurements, protons/electrons, things are simplified if we pretend that they're single-ended. So, hook your black voltmeter lead to the "circuit common," then ignore it and read "volts" or "amps". Nearlly all common appliances today by convention are 'ground' - negative battery pole.

Now pretend that the red-colored (+) probe on your voltmeter can actually measure the VOLTAGE OF A TERMINAL. But a terminal can't "have a voltage!", but we silently pretend that they do. Any point on the circuit can have a voltage, but only in relation to another circuit point (opposite polarity). If we were talking about altitudes, we could always make our measurements in relation to sea-level, then never mention sea-level, and then pretend that objects and locations can "have an altitude," when actually that's impossible.

So new students get confused when we discuss the "voltage of a terminal." Actually we meant "the voltage that appears between a terminal (RED) and the Circuit Common (BLACK). But what we're silently doing is measuring "voltage between voltage", while actually saying "voltage potential at this spot," or at that another spot. However, all the new students start thinking that one single terminal can have a voltage, no, only potential for voaltage.

Is the negative supply terminal the Circuit Common?

Yes, usually. However, there very old radios with PNP transistors, and a negative supply voltage with "positive ground." The positive battery terminal is the Circuit Common connected to the chasis. All the measurements in the schematic are really negative voltages. Besides the 1950s radios, the same thing happens in old VW Beetles, and in some motorbikes. The positive battery terminal is connected to the chassis, so the "supply terminal" is the negative (black) one. Don't install a normal car radio in an old VW, because it will short out or catch fire when you turn on the ignition. The power supply was backwards.

AC/DC

In AC power distribution (AC powerlines) and some radio antenna systems, and old time electrotherapy equipment (pre- and post world war II), "Ground" really does mean "a connection to the Earth". However, in most electronics, "Ground" is merely a label we stick on a point in the circuit that we wish to consider "Zero volts" (where we put the black meter lead when measuring voltages elsewhere). It would be better to call this point "reference" or "common", but the use of "ground" is so well established that we're stuck with it. This "ground/common" has no magical powers - it is not an infinite sink for electrons - it is just another point in the electronic circuit.

These days, "ground/common" is usually the most negative point in the circuit, but it may sometimes be the most positive point (one logic family is intended to operate from -5 volts - there the ground is positive). In many audio circuits, "ground/common" is the midpoint of the power supply, and we find both positive and negative voltages in the circuit.

Thus, in a large part, the identification of "ground" with "earth" is indeed a historical remnant, and arises from practices used by early power distribution companies, ham radio users, old school repairmen, etc. In current American terminology, ground is a reference point for measuring voltage and current in a circuit, while earth is an actual connection to a rod pounded into the ground.

The more general use of ground is descended from this practice, and it's actually still important in systems using any large amount of power when ground is a safety feature to prevent shock if the unit breaks down. For low power systems, especially battery-powered systems like cell phones, watches, gadgets, and common applicances, ground can be completely detached from any connection (physical or otherwise) to physical earth. Trailing from this and the above misuderstandings, most people think that "earth grounding" for a health practice is imaginary or useless. They remain mystified in group thinkdom.

But any electrical or electronic circuit, whether it's in a plane, or a car, or even in outer space, needs a reference point to start from in describing voltages and currents, and that reference point is generally referred to mistakenly as 'ground'. It is perfectly possible, and vital in electrotherapy, to produce a power system with voltage which is consistently negative with respect to ground (and earth). While not used much any more, in the 70s and 80s the highest-speed logic family was ECL, which used -5.2 volts as its base voltage. Cray computers were, for a while, the fastest supercomputers around, and they used almost exclusively ECL, and drew a whole lot of current - produced by - 5.2 volt supplies. And, old time electrotherapeutic equipment that plugged into mains had a 'ground' terminal as a safety precaution, but also put the patient indirectly connected to 'ground'.

So, when is the connection of ground and earth necessary?

Well, basically whenever you're talking about systems connected to the AC power grids or in terms of health.

If you don't pay attention to that, you either risk killing yourself if you accidentally provide an inadvertent path for current to flow; or slowly age yourself by isolating you body from mother earth. Power lines have to be referenced to earth to provide things like lightning protection, and such considerations have to be taken into account. However, the whole world of medicine and today's electrotherapy has fundamentally ignored the important aspect of actual grounding to earth as a passive, trickle-charge, flow system. Case in point is how astronauts suffer from rather severe health consequences like calcium bone loss (osteoporosis) when disconnected from earth for long periods. Same can be said for urbanites who walk on shoes, urinate in ceramic bowls connected to plastic pipes, walk elevated off the ground all day on wooden floors, live in skyscrappers, etc.

 

GALVANISM: A FORGOTTEN THERAPY

It may be hard for our modern day minds to imagine electrotherapy as such a powerful and effective modality which had been practiced for nearly one hundred years, was condemned by the establishment and went into disuse, but it did. Electrotherapy came to a sudden end after the 1910 publication of the Flexner Report. Science and the medical community rejected electrotherapy in favor of chemical drugs. All funding for American Schools teaching electrotherapy would be discontinued and electrotherapy would be branded as quackery.

Prior to that, due to the technical development of batteries and other devices producing electric energy at the end of the nineteenth century, resulted in the widespread use of electrotherapy in medical practice. A huge amount of books on electrotherapy, most written by medical doctors appeared, and a little known book - The Curative Powers of Electricity Demonstarted - I find as testimony. Electric healing devices became a medical panacea in that they were reported to "cure" virtually every conceivable disease known to man. By 1894, over 10,000 US physicians were regularly using electrotherapy in their practice. There is a lot of speculation as to why there was such widespread use, but the drug companies of course viewed this as a threat. That would mean, they were getting results in lieu of drugs. But panacea it is, because everything in the physical universe is by virtue of chemical life, electrical, as science admits.

However, the abuse of electrotherapy at the end of the 19th century, especially by untrained practitioners and charlatans was one of the primary contributing factors (and excuses) that led to the Carnegie Foundation to establish a commission to study medical education and standards of medical practice. The conclusions of this commission, documented in the Flexner Report, led to an immediate revision of medical education and licensure of physicians. The report further stipulated that medical therapies must be based upon their sound, scientific principles, which to this day is often unfounded. Take for example the continued morbid practices of chemotherapy and radiation. At that time, the lack of scientific knowledge concerning the nature and influence of electricty on biological systems effectively eliminated electrotherapy as a medical modality in the pop community. Great minds advocating it use were silenced, like George Crile, Harold Saxton Burr, and even Raymond Royal Rife. Since electromagnetism was not approved for experimental investigation, the affects attributed to electric healing devices were not supportable and as a result, electrotherapy fell into popular disrepute. The rest is history.

The essence of these historical considerations lays the foundation for us to reconsider and establish the position in which the therapeutic aspects of the EM spectrum we now find as we have entered the 21st century. Education and clinical application as the author has been doing for the last thirty years is of paramount importance in encouraging a dialogue between the physicians and those who are developing the therapeutic opportunities of electromagnetic and electric fields in medicine.

Currently in the medical sciences, the emphasis on pharmacology permeates the training of physicians and in fact, our entire society. In recent years, the crosslinks between the basic sciences of physics, biology, and quantum mechanics, with the development of biophysics and bioenergetics are becoming so strong and profound, that where the life scientists and in particular the physiologists, thought of themselves as in a completely different scientific discipline from physicists and electrical engineers. They are now realizing they are looking at different positions of the same continuum.

It is well established that the function and metabolism of the human body is an electrochemical system, driven by a a chemiosmotic proton pump. Chemiosmotic coupling and the harnessing of electrochemical ion gradients across membranes by H+ ions to drive metabolism is as universally conserved as the genetic code and primary source of energy for all ATP biology. The last universal common ancestor, also called LUCA, the last universal ancestor, cenancestor, or progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent. We get our energy from a bacterial like creature called the mitochondria. Few researchers have a problem with the idea that LUCA, this last universal common ancestor of life, possessed DNA, RNA and ribosomes, despite the intimidating complexity of the molecular machines involved in transcription and translation. Yet the idea that chemiosmotic coupling with the proton H+ that drives electons into ATP is ancient. Mitochondrial membranes requires not only a rotor-stator ATP synthase, but also ion-tight lipid membranes and complex proton pumps to generate the electrochemical ion gradients to charge ATP. In the end game, all efforts at herbal, nutritional, and energy medicine must address the pumping of protons for therapeutic results. Without generation of ATP, all tissues die within five minutes. Oyxgen is the final coupling agent that ATP requires to grab onto the electrons, but there are four chemical steps prior along the mitochondrial chain to deliver those electrons from sugar, and they are receptors of proton pumps. Vitamin therapy and thyroxine only 'kicks the can down the road' so to speak. Actually, Co-Q10, magnesium, and methylene blue are right there at the proton pumping stations. Without CoQ and mag, you get shutdown. Methblu not only help pumps, but also mops up the free radical inhibitors, AND, regenerates itself, over and again.

Modern medicine is preoccupied with studying, analyzing and treating mainly the chemical side of the equation. For the most part, the electrical half of human systems has been completely ignored. Physicians use several of the body's electrical systems for diagnosis (e.g., EKG, EEG, EMG and MEGs), yet limit the uses of the electromagnetics for therapeutics (e.g., cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, TENs devices, bone healing instruments). Few physicians also realize that one of the silent exploitations in pharmaceutical research now is iontophoresis, electro-pumping the delivery of drugs through the skin by electrical current. Medical doctors as a group are simply decades behind so many other fields of science.

Electric and electromagnetic energy fields, which include energies in the ranges of microwaves, radio-frequencies, the visible light spectrum, ELF and even acoustic frequencies, have been shown to profoundly impact every facet of biological regulation. Specific frequencies and patterns of electromagnetic radiation regulate:

 

  1. cell division;
  2. gene regulation;
  3. DNA, RNA and protein syntheses;
  4. protein conformation and function;
  5. morphogenesis;
  6. regeneration;
  7. ion transport and regulation through cell membranes;
  8. and nerve conduction and growth.

 

Proticity researcher Mitchell studied the mitochondrion, the bacteria-like organelle that produces the bulk of the energy economy for the cell. ATP is made within the mitochondrion by adding a phosphate group to ADP in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation. Mitchell was able to determine how a chain of different enzymes were involved in the conversion of ADP to ATP. They are distributed within the membranes that partition the interior of the mitochondrion where Kreb's cycle takes place. He showed how these enzymes' arrangement facilitates their use of hydrogen ions (protons) as the energy source in the conversion of ADP to ATP. Here, it is not 'electrons' as distributed along the energy conversion chain, but protons H+.

This became known as the Chemiosmotic hypothesis, proposed by Peter Mitchel (1970) to explain how NADH oxidation is coupled to ATP synthesis by virtue of "proton pumping." Peter Mitchell's 1961 paper introducing the chemiosmotic hypothesis started a revolution which has echoed beyond bioenergetics to all biology, and shaped our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of biological energy conservation, ion and metabolite transport, bacterial motility, organelle structure and biosynthesis, membrane structure and function, homeostasis, the evolution of the eukaryote cell, and indeed every aspect of life in which these protonic processes play a role. The Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1978, awarded to Peter Mitchell as the sole recipient, recognized his predominant contribution towards establishing the validity of the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and ipso facto, the long struggle to convince an initially hostile establishment.

The above concepts had been broadly outlined by about the beginning of the 1960s, but the exact mechanisms by which electron transfer is coupled to ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation remained unknown. The proton pumping theory was first received with scepticism; but, over the past 15 years, work in both Mitchell's and many other laboratories have shown that the basic postulates of his theory are correct. The chemiosmotic theory is now generally accepted as a fundamental principle in bioenergetics. This theory of biological power transmission by protonmotive force (or 'proticity', as Mitchell calls it in an analogy with its opposite electricity - electromotive force EMF) has already been shown to be applicable to other energy-requiring cellular processes. These include the uptake of nutrients by bacterial cells, cellular and intracellular transport of ions and metabolites, biological heat production, bacterial motion, etc. In addition, the chloroplasts of plants, which harvest the light-energy of the sun, and the mitochondria of animal cells, which are the main converters of energy from respiration, are remarkably like miniaturized solar- and fuel-cell systems. Mitchell's discoveries are therefore extremely valuable, not only for the understanding of biological energy-transfer systems but also in relation to the technology of energy conversion.

Add it all up, and the acid-alkaline balance we have all followed for decades now makes more sense than ever. While the academic jarheads continued to denounce us as quacks, we were right all along. They denounced our theory, dating back to Carey Reams and George Ohsawa, but we had the practical results - people healed on alkalizing diets!

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1978/press.html

REMARKABLE OBSERVATION, THE EFFICACY OF THE GALVANIC BATH

This startling little book, "The curative powers of electricity demonstrated", is a testimony to the results that were achieved by some bold and remarkable medical doctors, even in a time when the full ramifications of electrotherapy were not understood, but its effects were.

The galvanic bath was used extensively at the Toronto Institute. A galvanic bath uses the components of water and gentle electrical current. You lie in a 34 degree Celsius Bath, electricity is then passed through your body. Galvanic bath's are mostly used in the treatment of degenerative diseases such as inflammatory arthritis, as a tonic in debility, prolapsus ani, and problems with the joints. The treatment lasts about 15 minutes.

BATHS [from this text]

"In connection with our numerous appliances for administering electricity, we have a superior Galvanic Bath, for the treatment of all appropriate cases. N.B. - We wish the suffering distinctlly bear in mind that our mode of treating disease is entirely FREE FROM SHOCKS OR UNPLEASANT SENSATION, on the contrary, it is in every way pleasant and agreeable, even to the most sensitive and delicate. We apply it with equal success to the tender babe and aged matron or sire."

Types of Galvanic Baths

In addition to full galvanic baths, when the patient's body is fully immersed in water, there are also four-chambered galvanic baths (also called four cell galvanic baths), which also combine electro energy and hydrotherapy, but are used only on the limbs. Patient's forearms and lower legs are put in water trays, and electric current is passed through warm water. This pain-killing procedure improves the circulation and is considered especially beneficial for rheumatoid arthritis, joint pains, stiff muscles, and various neuralgias.

IONTOPHORESIS & EARTHING IN DIGUISE

Examining these old time baths with our now refreshed knowledge, it is not hard to see why this team of doctors were treating with success the entire spectrum of medical disorders, they write:

The cures effected by "electrical treatment,"
as recorded in these books, have more the appearance of acci-
dental successes than of results reached, by a distinct conception
of the laws that govern the electrical currents of the various
animal tissues and organs, and an intelligent application of
means to the end sought to be reached. Were the physician in
possession of a classified system of electro-therapeutics, proved
to be thoroughly sound and reliable, 1st, by its harmony with
general electrical laws; and, 2ndly, by its uniform success in cur-
ing disease, he would, without question, rely far less than he now
does upon the painfully uncertain methods in vogue with the
profession, and make use of electricity, in many cases not as the
last but the first agent to be employed.

Examining the old books on Galvanic Baths, with our new understanding of Earthing, Schumann's resonator, Mitchell's proticity, etc., it becomes readily apparent that today's electrotherapy is totally ignoring two dynamics:

1. The body and biology not only operates on the "hard electrons" (Cater) of science, but also the protons of Hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, lithium and other (positive) ions. According to the late Dr. Carey Reams, "Ionization is God's laws putting things together and taking them apart ion by ion." He was remarkably correct, as early as the 1970s.

To explain anionic and cationic... an ion is a molecule with an electric charge. An anion contains the smallest amount of energy known to man. One anion will contain from 1 to 499 Milhouse units of energy. It is a negative charged ion. Anionic corresponds to alkaline. Its electrons orbit around the nucleus in a clockwise direction.

A cation corresponds to acid. One cation will contain from 500 to 999 Milhouse units of energy. It is a positive charged ion. Its electrons orbit in a counter-clockwise direction. When a cation gains more than 999 Milhouse units of energy, it splits into two anions. (Dr. Carey Reams, Biological Ionization Theory).

When metallized electrodes are placed on the body's skin, only hard electrons are delivered to the body. However, in the Galvanic Bath, all the minerals contained in the water become part of the dynamic, positive and negative. Most potable water is hard, that is, contains salts of calcium, magnesium, and traces of many other ions. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates, but may include several other metals as well as bicarbonates and sulfates. These participate in both electrophoresis and protophoresis reactions, each favoring the cathode or anode.

2. Secondly, and this is critical, since most of these instruments were connected to mains, the technology of the day would assume GROUNDING of the instrument. The device becomes the power source, the human body the LOAD, and the path of current leads to GROUND.

By the infusion, if not saturation, of the blood and interstitial tissue not only with direct current, it is a current both positive and negative, which is biologic that travels through the body and then all the way to ground. Earthing at its finest!

I hope this article completely transcends you to a higher potential!

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